11.1: Learning Objectives - Biology

11.1: Learning Objectives - Biology

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Learning Objectives

After this lab you should be able to:

  1. Define the terms: Cardinal temperatures, psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermophiles, hyperthermophiles.
  2. Know several relative temperatures in centigrade.
  3. Relate temperature to survival of bacteria in food, water, etc.
  4. Describe the effects temperature can have on a cell.
  5. Briefly relate production of prodigiosin to gene regulation in Serratia marcescens.

This chart from the Indiana State Dept. of Health shows the relationship of various temperatures on the growth of foodborne bacteria. What temperatures do most bacteria grow in? How does this relate to things like food storage, medication storage, etc.?

11.1: Learning Objectives - Biology

11.1 Learning Objective 11-1

1) What inventory method is used when the inventory balance is updated only at the end of the accounting period?

2) A characteristic of a perpetual inventory method is:

A) it keeps continual track of inventory.

B) it records units on hand at the beginning of the period.

C) it records units sold immediately.

D) All of these answers are correct.

3) When using a periodic inventory method, what account is increased when you buy merchandise inventory?

4) Cost of Goods Sold equals:

A) Beginning Inventory + Net Purchases + Freight-in + Ending Inventory.

B) Beginning Inventory - Net Purchases - Freight-in + Ending Inventory.

C) Beginning Inventory + Net Purchases + Freight-in - Ending Inventory.

D) Beginning Inventory - Net Purchases + Freight-in + Ending Inventory.

A) Net Sales - Cost of goods sold - Operating expenses.

B) Gross Profit - Operating expenses.

C) Sales - Sales Returns & Allowances - Sales Discount - Cost of goods sold - Operating Expenses.

D) All of the above are correct.

A) increases Cost of Goods Sold.

B) decreases Cost of Goods Sold.

C) does not affect Cost of Goods Sold.

7) If gross profit exceeds operating expenses, the company:

D) Not enough information given.

8) Beginning inventory was $4,000, purchases totaled $22,000 and sales were $20,000. What is the ending inventory?

9) If $6,000 was the beginning inventory, purchases were $10,000 and sales were $7,000. How much was ending inventory last accounting period?


Planning is essential in any sort of activity and more so when a teacher is going to a classroom for teaching a subject.

Before going to the classroom, the teacher has to select the appropriate method for teaching the topic and also the proper teaching aid which will help the learner to understand the concepts in the topic. This is sometimes called planning the strategy.

Lesson Plan

Components of a Lesson Plan

Teachers should follow specific steps in writing lesson plans.

  1. Preparation or Introduction
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison or Association
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation


What is a Unit?

A unit is a large subdivision of subject matter with a common fabric of knowledge. The unit is not just blocks of subject matter but is composed of both method and content.

Steps in Unit Planning

  1. Content analysis (the What of the unit)
  2. Objectives with specifications (the Why of the unit)
  3. Learning activities (the How of the unit)
  4. Testing procedures (evidence of achievement)

Learning Objectives

11-1: Identify the components of an integrated logistics management system.

Integrated logistics management refers to the activities used to control the movement of products and associated costs so that there is a continuous and uninterrupted flow of products. The key components of an integrated logistics management system are order fulfillment, transportation management, packaging, materials handling, warehouse management, inventory management, and the design of a network of facilities.

11-2: List the steps in the order fulfillment process.

Order fulfillment is the process by which a company responds to customer orders. It includes all the activities from the point of initial contact with the customer to the point of delivering that order. The order fulfillment process is a critical logistics activity because it is a key determinant of customer satisfaction and of whether customers will do business with you again.

11-3: Identify the decisions involved in transportation management.

Transportation management involves overseeing the movement of goods and raw materials and is a vital component of nearly every business and industry. Decisions in transportation management include selecting a transportation mode and a network design strategy. The most common transportation modes are air, truck, rail, water, and pipeline. Each mode has its benefits and drawbacks. Intermodal transportation is the movement of freight stored in containers using two or more modes of transportation. Transportation network design strategies involve establishing an infrastructure that facilitates scheduling and routing decisions. The goal is to optimize the satisfaction of customers at the least possible cost. Among the critical trade-offs when designing a transportation system are transportation versus inventory costs and transportation costs versus customer responsiveness.

11-4: Describe the role of packaging in the transport, distribution, storage, sale, and use of goods.

Product packaging affects a firm’s transportation and logistics strategies and requires an organization to focus on a variety of issues such as product protection, convenience, and efficiency that affect packaging. Packaging protects the product, and it can be designed to make it easier to transport and sell a product. The various physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics, and the shape and size of the product and the severity of the distribution environment, affect packaging choices. Firms use different types of packaging to handle and ship products as safely and efficiently as possible.

11-5: Define materials handling, and discuss its critical role in a logistics system.

Materials handling is the short-distance movement, storage, control, and protection of materials within the confines of a plant or a warehousing facility. Materials handling plays a critical role in logistics because it has an impact on overall logistics costs, product protection, and physical safety of workers.

11-6: Describe the functions of a warehouse and the different types of warehouses.

Major warehouse functions include order picking, inventory management, consolidation, assembly, bulk breaking, cross-docking, packaging and labeling, and reverse logistics. Public warehouses, private warehouses, and contract warehouses are the three major types of warehouses. In addition, supply warehouses, cross-docking warehouses, and distribution centers are storage facilities used to store incoming goods temporarily both at the point of origin and between the origin and consumption points.

11-7: Explain why good inventory management is important to logistics management.

Good inventory management gives a firm the ability to locate and pick items quickly that are stored within a warehouse for subsequent loading and outbound shipment. Part of inventory management is striking the optimum balance between the costs of carrying inventory in storage against maintaining a sufficient amount of stock to meet the demands of customers.

11-8: Discuss the importance of facilities network design in a logistics system.

In the context of an integrated logistics system, a facilities network design refers to the strategic placement of warehouses, distribution centers, service centers, and manufacturing plants throughout the supply chain. The optimum numbers and types of facilities, their locations, and the nature of their operations are decisions that have to be made as part of the facilities network design process.

11-9: Discuss the unique challenges of managing global logistics.

When designing a global logistics framework, managers need to take into account standard logistical challenges, as well as political, economic, cultural, and distance factors. They also must complete international documentation for each shipment.

11-10: Define logistics outsourcing, and explain why companies outsource their logistics function.

Logistics outsourcing consists of employing third-party (3PL) logistics experts who perform some or all of the necessary logistics functions of warehousing, outbound logistics, export packing, carrier negotiation, and freight consolidation. In recent years, other layers of contract logistics have become widely used, including 4PL and 5PL providers. Many companies outsource some or all of their logistics functions so as to reduce their logistics costs and focus on their core businesses. In addition, accelerated growth in global trade has spurred logistics outsourcing as the global 3PL providers are often better equipped to handle in-country activities and serve as freight forwarders, export trading companies, and customs house brokers, among other logistics duties.

11-11: Describe the unique logistical needs and challenges in the service sector.

The traditional logistical activities of transportation, distribution, and warehousing of physical goods also occur in services. Yet, as a result of the time-critical nature of service businesses, their logistical needs must be met quickly. Innovative transportation, warehousing, packaging, and labeling systems combined with tracking technology, such as RFID, are used by many service businesses to ensure products and services are delivered on time. Because of the unique logistical complexities, many service companies turn to 3PL providers to manage their logistics functions.

11-12: Explain how sustainability issues are affecting the decisions made in logistics.

Sustainability has shaped the decisions managers make about the logistics functions of their firms with regard to the packaging, transportation, storage, and waste generated by their operations. Companies can implement many operational strategies to improve sustainability in logistics activities, including focusing on smarter and greener packaging, consolidating facilities, employing better mixtures of transportation modes, and managing capacity.

The World’s Growing Energy Needs

World energy consumption continues to rise, especially in the developing countries. (See Figure.) Global demand for energy has tripled in the past 50 years and might triple again in the next 30 years. While much of this growth will come from the rapidly booming economies of China and India, many of the developed countries, especially those in Europe, are hoping to meet their energy needs by expanding the use of renewable sources. Although presently only a small percentage, renewable energy is growing very fast, especially wind energy. For example, Germany plans to meet 20% of its electricity and 10% of its overall energy needs with renewable resources by the year 2020. (See Figure.) Energy is a key constraint in the rapid economic growth of China and India. In 2003, China surpassed Japan as the world’s second largest consumer of oil. However, over 1/3 of this is imported. Unlike most Western countries, coal dominates the commercial energy resources of China, accounting for 2/3 of its energy consumption. In 2009 China surpassed the United States as the largest generator of CO 2 size 12 <“CO” rSub < size 8<2>> > <> . In India, the main energy resources are biomass (wood and dung) and coal. Half of India’s oil is imported. About 70% of India’s electricity is generated by highly polluting coal. Yet there are sizeable strides being made in renewable energy. India has a rapidly growing wind energy base, and it has the largest solar cooking program in the world.

Figure 2: Past and projected world energy use (source: Based on data from U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011) Figure 3: Solar cell arrays at a power plant in Steindorf, Germany (credit: Michael Betke, Flickr)

Table displays the 2006 commercial energy mix by country for some of the prime energy users in the world. While non-renewable sources dominate, some countries get a sizeable percentage of their electricity from renewable resources. For example, about 67% of New Zealand’s electricity demand is met by hydroelectric. Only 10% of the U.S. electricity is generated by renewable resources, primarily hydroelectric. It is difficult to determine total contributions of renewable energy in some countries with a large rural population, so these percentages in this table are left blank.

Energy Consumption—Selected Countries (2006)
Country Consumption, in EJ (10 18 J) Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro Other Renewables Electricity Use per capita (kWh/yr) Energy Use per capita (GJ/yr)
Australia 5.4 34% 17% 44% 0% 3% 1% 10000 260
Brazil 9.6 48% 7% 5% 1% 35% 2% 2000 50
China 63 22% 3% 69% 1% 6% 1500 35
Egypt 2.4 50% 41% 1% 0% 6% 990 32
Germany 16 37% 24% 24% 11% 1% 3% 6400 173
India 15 34% 7% 52% 1% 5% 470 13
Indonesia 4.9 51% 26% 16% 0% 2% 3% 420 22
Japan 24 48% 14% 21% 12% 4% 1% 7100 176
New Zealand 0.44 32% 26% 6% 0% 11% 19% 8500 102
Russia 31 19% 53% 16% 5% 6% 5700 202
U.S. 105 40% 23% 22% 8% 3% 1% 12500 340
World 432 39% 23% 24% 6% 6% 2% 2600 71
Energy Consumption—Selected Countries (2006)

Biology Learning Objectives Chapter 11

1. DNA packing - packing can block gene expression by preventing RNA polymerase from contacting the DNA.
2. Chemical modifications and Epigenetic Inheritance - The histone proteins can be modified by adding or removing chemical groups and thus make it difficult for transcription. Also, DNA can be methylated by adding a methyl group to the Cytosine base. These chemical modifications discourage expression. These chemical modifications to histones and DNA are usually passed down to future generations. This is called Epigenetic Inheritance, where inheritance of traits involve mechanisms other than the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is seen in some cancers.
3. X Inactivation - Female mammals inherit two X chromosomes, whereas males inherit only one. However, females do not produce twice the protein as males and this is because one of the X chromosomes is chemically modified (histones and DNA) making it inactive. The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object called a Barr body.

Like prokaryotic cells, the most important regulation of transcription is at initiation. Eukaryotic cells also have activators and repressors. However, they are not clustered together with the gene but are located elsewhere, maybe on the same chromosome but maybe on a different chromosome.

In eukaryotic multicellular organisms, the default state for most genes seems to be in the "off" position, so activator genes play a more important role.

Eukaryotic RNA requires the help of transcription factors. The first step in initiation is the binding of these factors to the enhancer, which is located far from the gene itself. Bending of the DNA strand occurs and other factors bind the enhancer to the promoter to allow mRNA to bind and start transcription.

How to Teach Biology

This article was co-authored by Soren Rosier, PhD. Soren Rosier is a PhD candidate at Stanford's Graduate School of Education. He studies how children teach each other and how to train effective peer teachers. Before beginning his PhD, he was a middle school teacher in Oakland, California, and a researcher at SRI International. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University in 2010.

There are 18 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 94% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

This article has been viewed 70,956 times.

Biology is one of the central branches of scientific knowledge, and is relevant to topics including medicine, genetics, zoology, ecology, and public policy. As such, it has the potential to interest almost any student. To be successful at teaching biology, however, you will have to think carefully about how to share this exciting field in ways that are relatable and enjoyable. Along the way, you should make it your goal for students to achieve at least a fundamental knowledge of biological concepts.

Environmental and Health Challenges of Energy Use

The environmental impacts of energy use on humans and the planet can happen anywhere during the life cycle of the energy source. The impacts begin with the extraction of the resource. They continue with the processing, purification or manufacture of the source its transportation to place of energy generation, and ends with the disposal of waste generated during use.

Extraction of fossil fuels can be used as a case study because its use has significant impacts on the environment. As we mine deeper into mountains, farther out at sea, or farther into pristine habitats, we risk damaging fragile environments, and the results of accidents or natural disasters during extraction processes can be devastating. Fossils fuels are often located far from where they are utilized so they need to be transported by pipeline, tankers, rail or trucks. These all present the potential for accidents, leakage and spills. When transported by rail or truck energy must be expended and pollutants are generated. Processing of petroleum, gas and coal generates various types of emissions and wastes, as well as utilizes water resources. Production of energy at power plants results in air, water, and, often, waste emissions. Power plants are highly regulated in the Unites States by federal and state law under the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, while nuclear power plants are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Figure 1 summarizes the environmental impacts of several types of fuels, both renewable and non-renewable.

Figure 1. Environmental Impacts of Nonrenewable and Renewable Electricity Sources Source: C. Klein-Banai using data from U.S. Energy Information Administration and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Geopolitical Challenges of Fossil Fuels

The use of fossil fuels has allowed much of the global population to reach a higher standard of living. However, this dependence on fossil fuels results in many significant impacts on society. Our modern technologies and services, such as transportation and plastics depend in many ways on fossil fuels. If supplies become limited or extremely costly, our economies are vulnerable. If countries do not have fossil fuel reserves of their own, they incur even more risk. The United States has become more and more dependent on foreign oil since 1970 when our own oil production peaked. The United States imported over half of the crude oil and refined petroleum products that we consumed during 2009. Just over half of these imports came from the Western Hemisphere (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Sources of United States Net Petroleum Imports, 2009 Figure illustrates that the United States imported over half of the crude oil and refined petroleum products that it consumed during 2009. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual, 2009, preliminary data.

The major holder of oil reserves is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, (OPEC) (Figure 3). As of January 2009, there were 12 member countries in OPEC: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC attempts to influence the amount of oil available to the world by assigning a production quota to each member except Iraq, for which no quota is presently set. Overall compliance with these quotas is mixed since the individual countries make the actual production decisions. All of these countries have a national oil company but also allow international oil companies to operate within their borders. They can restrict the amounts of production by those oil companies. Therefore, the OPEC countries have a large influence on how much of world demand is met by OPEC and non-OPEC supply. A recent example of this is the price increases that occurred during the year 2011 after multiple popular uprisings in Arab countries, including Libya.

Figure 3. Proven Oil Reserves Holders Pie chart shows proven oil reserves holders. Source: C. Klein-Banai using data from BP Statistical Review of World Energy (2010)

This pressure has lead the United States to developing policies that would reduce reliance on foreign oil such as developing additional domestic sources and obtaining it from non-Middle Eastern countries such as Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, and Nigeria. However, since fossil fuel reserves create jobs and provide dividends to investors, a lot is at stake in a nation that has oil reserves. Oil wealth may be shared with the country’s inhabitants or retained by the oil companies and dictatorships, such as in Nigeria prior to the 1990s.

Figure 4. Fuel Type and Carbon Emissions The two charts show the relationship between fuel type and carbon emissions for U.S. energy consumption in 2010. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration


Essentials of Environmental Science by Kamala Doršner is licensed under CC BY 4.0. Modified from the original by Matthew R. Fisher.

Biology Learning Goals

Students completing the requirements of the B.A. and B.S. Biology degrees learn to perceive biology not as a collection of facts, but as a dynamic conceptual framework involving many particular areas of research.

Both Biology degrees prepare students for careers in biology, biotechnology and health related fields. Consider which pathway to take (the B.A. or the B.S.) when considering your goals. Both degrees also prepare you to further your education in graduate and professional schools.

Students who complete the core classes and advanced electives gain fundamental science skills and a deep understanding of the biological principles governing life on our planet. Graduates obtain the skills needed to be independent, life-long learners, including the ability to evaluate scientific issues that affect daily life and society.

Gain foundational skills

Students graduating from the Biology program will be able to:

This skill requires students to:

  • Make observations
  • Identify significant open questions
  • Formulate hypotheses
  • Design experiments
  • Learn modern laboratory techniques
  • Collect and document data
  • Use quantitative reasoning to analyze, interpret, and present data
  • Collaborate with others to solve problems

These activities enable hypothesis-driven experimentation and analytical thinking. This approach to knowledge forms the basis of scientific research, guides the formation, testing, and validation of theories, and distinguishes conclusions developed through scientific reasoning from those that rest on unverified assertion.

Find, critically evaluate, and communicate information on biological questions.

This skill requires students to:

  • Identify appropriate information sources
  • Comprehend and critically analyze primary, secondary, and popular scientific literature
  • Distinguish between supported and unsupported conclusions in a given study
  • Use writing to distill meaning from a collection of information sources, logically organize ideas, and construct a cogent scientific argument
  • Convey the scientific argument through concise written and oral communication

These activities result in deeper more nuanced understanding of biological studies, their relationship to prior published work, and the formulation of future directions for a field. Graduates will be able to accurately communicate biological information, and the importance of underlying issues, to diverse audiences.

Think critically and ethically about biological research and its societal impact.

This skill requires students to:

  • Understand and recognize ethical issues that arise from scientific research
  • Understand and recognize ethical research practices
  • Understand the role of science in addressing societal issues
  • Understand how biological concepts are derived from scientific research, and how further scientific advancements will support, refute or alter current theories.

These activities provide graduates with the skills necessary for informed scientific stewardship.

Core program content

The skills above will be developed while students engage in course work focused on the following content:

Program Learning Objectives

Bachelors (BA and BS)

PLO1: Students will demonstrate the ability to formulate hypotheses and design experiments to address a scientific question.

PLO2: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relevant content in their concentration.

PLO3: Students will demonstrate laboratory or field skills relevant to their concentration.

PLO4: Students will demonstrate proficiency in scientific writing skills by effectively writing an advanced scientific paper.

PLO5: Students will demonstrate proficiency in oral presentation skills by effectively presenting scientific research.

Masters (MA)

PLO1. Students will develop effective written communication skills, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by a written exam.

PLO2. Students will develop effective oral communication skills, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by an oral exam.

PLO3. Students will demonstrate the ability to independently answer questions regarding their specific field of study, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by an oral exam.

PLO4. Students will demonstrate the ability to develop, present, defend and critically analyze hypotheses and conclusions using information gained through searches of primary literature, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by an oral exam.

Masters (MS)

PLO1: Students will develop effective written communication skills, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by a written thesis or project.

PLO2: Students will develop effective oral communication skills, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by an oral presentation.

PLO3: Students will demonstrate the ability to independently answer questions regarding their specific field of research, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by an oral presentation.

PLO4: Students will demonstrate the ability to develop, present, and defend a research plan using information gained through preliminary experiments as well as critical analysis of primary literature, as assessed by a research proposal at baseline, followed by a written thesis or project.

Watch the video: Biology - notes (July 2022).


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